News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either produced locally in a radio studio or television studio newsroom, or by a broadcast network. It may include material such as sports coverage, weather forecasts, traffic reports, political commentary, expert opinions, editorial content, and other material that the broadcaster feels is relevant to their audience. An individual news program is typically reported in a series of individual stories that are presented by one or more anchors. A frequent inclusion are live or recorded interviews by field reporters.
Television news programs inform and discuss current events via the medium of television. A “news bulletin” or a “newscast” are television programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on events. Programs can vary their focus; some newscasts discuss largely international or national matters, while others will focus on regional and local news events.
Example providers of generalist broadcast news shows focusing on national and international matters include BBC News, NBC News, CNN, Fox News Channel, CNA, and Al Jazeera. In addition to general news outlets, there are many specialized news outlets. ESPNews, Fox Sports News, and Euro sport News cover sports journalism topics; CNBC, Bloomberg Television, and Fox Business Network are examples that cover business news. Local programming covers the many examples of smaller stations with a regional focus.
Newscasts, also known as bulletins or news programmes, differ in content, tone, and presentation style depending on the format of the channel/station on which they appear, and their timeslot. In most parts of the world, national television networks will have bulletins featuring national and international news. The top-rated shows will often air in the evening during “prime time”, but there are also morning newscasts of two to three hours in length. Rolling news channels broadcast news content 24 hours a day. The advent of the internet has allowed the regular 24-hour-a-day presentation of many video and audio news reports, which are updated when additional information becomes available; many television broadcasters provide content originally provided on-air as well as exclusive or supplementary news content on their websites. Local news may be presented by standalone local television stations, stations affiliated with national networks or by local studios which “opt-out” of national network programming at specified points. Different news programming may be aimed at different audiences, depending on age, socio-economic group, or those from particular sections of society. “Magazine-style” television shows (or newsmagazines) may mix news coverage with topical lifestyle issues, debates, or entertainment content. Public affairs programs provide analysis of and interviews about political, social, and economic issues.
News programs feature one or two (sometimes, three) anchors (or presenters, the terminology varies around the world) segueing into news stories filed by a reporter (or correspondent) by describing the story to be shown; however, some stories within the broadcast are read by the presenter themselves; in the former case, the anchor “tosses” to the reporter to introduce the featured story; likewise, the reporter “tosses” back to the anchor once the taped report has concluded and the reporter provides additional information. Often in situations necessitating long-form reporting on a story (usually during breaking news situations), the reporter is interviewed by the anchor, known as a ‘two-way’, or a guest involved in or offering analysis on the story is interviewed by a reporter or anchor. There may also be breaking news stories which will present live rolling coverage.
Television news organizations employ several anchors and reporters to provide reports (as many as ten anchors, and up to 20 reporters for local news operations or up to 30 for national news organizations). They may also employ specialty reporters that focus on reporting certain types of news content (such as traffic or entertainment), meteorologists or weather anchors (the latter term often refers to weather presenters that do not have degrees in meteorology earned at an educational institution) who provide weather forecasts – more common in local news and on network morning programs – and sports presenters that report on ongoing, concluded, or upcoming Packages will usually be filmed at a relevant location and edited in an editing suite in a newsroom or a remote contribution edit suite in a location some distance from the newsroom. They may also be edited in mobile editing vans, or satellite vans or trucks (such as electronic news gathering vehicles), and transmitted back to the newsroom. Live coverage will be broadcast from a relevant location and sent back to the newsroom via fixed cable links, microwave radio, production truck, satellite truck, or via online streaming. Roles associated with television news include a technical director, floor director audio technician, and a television crew of operators running character graphics (CG), Teleprompters, and professional video cameras. Most news shows are broadcast live.
Radio news is transmitted through the medium of radio, meaning it is audio-only. It was a dominant form of information dissemination to households from the 1910s –1940s before home televisions became cheap and common. Radio news has persisted, often with short updates at certain intervals on the hour, although the medium of radio has generally shifted toward people doing something else such as driving, working or waking up, compared to television.
Radio news broadcasts can range from as little as one minute to as much as the station’s entire schedule, such as the case of all-news radio, or talk radio. Stations dedicated to news or talk content will often feature newscasts, or bulletins, usually at the top of the hour, usually between three and eight minutes in length. They can be a mix of local, regional, national, and international news, as well as sport, entertainment, weather, and traffic reports, or they may be incorporated into separate bulletins. All-news radio stations exist in some countries (most commonly in North America) which often broadcast local, national, and international news and feature stories on a set time schedule (sometimes known as a “wheel” format, which schedules the presentation of certain segments focused on a specific type of news content at a specific point each hour).
The vast majority of professionally produced video or audio news on the Internet tends to be attached to existing news organizations. Radio stations will upload their news reports as stream able podcasts and television networks will sometimes make their broadcasts available over Internet video. Print newspapers will sometimes feature video on their websites for breaking news events and for long-form video journalism. The usual focus on the Internet tends to be a la carte, however – rather than a recap show of the issues of the day like a TV or radio show, Internet news sites will usually allow the browser to find the one story they’re interested in and watch a video strictly on that, even if said video might have been a segment of a larger show. Internet native news shows do exist such as Vice News, but they tend to seep elsewhere: Vice News ran a broadcast on HBO for a few years despite starting as a YouTube channel, for example, eventually transferring the show to their own network called Vice land and later Vice On TV.
Outside the realm of traditional news organizations with paid journalists are citizen journalists, independents who report on their own and use sites such as YouTube to display their content. Independents also heavily cover commentary on news: while most independents cannot originally report on anything other than local issues due to budgetary concerns, opinions are cheaper. As such, Internet journalism has many video broadcasts & podcasts of opinion closer to the talk radio model. Hyper-local news is also more feasible on the Internet: issues such as school board meetings steamed on video, town parades, and so on.